We plan to use a hierarchy of models ranging from leaf to regional scales. These techniques go from explicit ideal to realistic numerical experiments perfmed by DALES, conceptual modelling (CLASS) to support observations and regional modelling to cover the three ecosystems under study.
DALES (Dutch Atmospheric Large Eddy Simulation) is a large-eddy simulation code that is able to reproduce unstable, neutral and stable stratified clear and cloudy boundary layers. It integrates biology (photosynthesis, soil respiration), chemistry (NOx-VOC-O3), radiative transfer, microphysics, canopy effects and large-scale forcing in the explicit solution of the most energetic eddies and clouds. The code has been applied to academic or idealized flows as well as to reproduced observations taken in boreal forests, grasslands and the Amazon basin.
More information and the code
DALES three-dimensional snapshot of a cloud interacting with the surface: vertical velocity (left side panel red) and moisture flux (right side panel in blue)
CLASS (Chemistry Land surface Atmosphere Soil Slab) combines the theoretical concepts of the land-atmosphere-cloud system outlined in a course book with the CLASS software. This software provides hands-on practical exercises and allows a researcher or student to design their own numerical experiments. CLASS is an ideal modelling tool to support the observational analyses of biological, chemical, soil, plant and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics. In addition to the original friendly graphical interface, there is a version coded in PYTHON and FORTRAN.
More information and the code at http://classmodel.github.io/
To expand our understanding to the regional level in the Amazonian basin, Western Europe, and Scandinavia, we plan to embed the DALES simulation model within the global model ECMWF-IFS. The embedding of DALES in a global model characterized with high-spatial horizontal resolution (between 9 to 25 km x km) allows us to merge the benefits of both modelling approaches: (1) explicit simulations of the interaction between vegetation and clouds by DALES that (2) take into account the accurate boundary and initial conditions calculated by ECMWF-IFS.