We plan to use a hierarchy of models ranging from leaf to regional scales. These techniques go from explicit ideal to realistic numerical experiments perfmed by DALES, conceptual modelling (CLASS) to support observations and regional modelling to cover the three ecosystems under study.


DALES (Dutch Atmospheric Large Eddy Simulation) is a large-eddy simulation code that is able to reproduce unstable, neutral and stable stratified clear and cloudy boundary layers. It integrates biology (photosynthesis, soil respiration), chemistry (NOx-VOC-O3), radiative transfer, microphysics, canopy effects and large-scale forcing in the explicit solution of the most energetic eddies and clouds. The code has been applied to academic or idealized flows as well as to reproduced observations taken in boreal forests, grasslands and the Amazon basin.
More information and the code

DALES three-dimensional snapshot of a cloud interacting with the surface: vertical velocity (left side panel red) and moisture flux (right side panel in blue)